Vol 5, No 2 (2019)

Cover Page
Original papers
Improve Current Collection in the Transport System of the Type "HYPERLOOP"
Kim K.K., Kolesova A.V., Kolesov S.L.

Abstract

Background: The vehicle moved in the pipe with rarefied air with the high speed provides high labour productivity, safety, ecological cleanness, comfort and independence from the atmospheric phenomena.

Aim: improving the current collection in the speed range of 500-700 km/h.

Method: We develop the method of decreasing the wear of the contact insert by using disulfide solid lubricant.

Results: of the solution of magnetohydrodynamics equations for the lubricant layer allowed to define the optimal value of the lubricant layer thickness.

Conclusion: The use of this lubricant is advisable on an alternating current. In this case the wear of the contact insert, the degree of sparking and the electromagnetic noise are decreased.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):5-15
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Study on Heat Exchange of Different Ventilation Structures of Asynchronous Traction Motor for High Speed EMU
Li W., Cao J., Li D., Wu Z.

Abstract

Background: Aiming at the problems of high local temperature and uneven temperature distribution in asynchronous traction motor of high-speed Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) when it is running.

Aim: In this paper, the influence of ventilation system with different structure on temperature distribution is studied.

Methods: Taking 600 kW asynchronous traction motor as an example, the electromagnetic-fluid-temperature analysis model of the traction motor is established, and the temperature values of different positions in the motor are obtained.

The accuracy of the calculation results is verified by comparing with the actual measurement.

On this basis, by adjusting the structure of stator and rotor axial ventilation holes, the relationship between temperature distribution and fluid flow state in motor is studied.

In addition, the influence of fluid incidence angle on fluid velocity and heat dissipation performance of motor is also studied, and the ventilation structure scheme with relative balance of axial and circumferential temperature in motor is found out, which provides a reference strategy for the design of temperature rise of motor with forced ventilation structure.

Results: The wind speed near the intake side of stator teeth and rotor teeth groove is less than that far from the intake side. The flow distribution trend of rotor vent is similar to that of stator vent, but the air in the groove is affected by centrifugal force of rotor rotation, which makes the wind speed difference on the intake side larger than that on the outlet side.

The stator winding and rotor guide bar are affected by wind temperature to reach the maximum temperature at the end of the outlet respectively. The stator core is higher at the windward side and the leeward side than the other parts of the motor. The heat dissipation effect at both ends is good.

The highest temperature of the stator core appears near the leeward side.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):16-30
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A multilayer superconducting tape of the Nb50Ti alloy obtained from a Cu/Nb/Ti composite with a solid phase
Korzhov V.P., Zverev V.N.

Abstract

Aim: Creation of multilayer superconducting tape made of Nb-Ti alloy.

Methods: Using the methods of diffusion welding and packet rolling, for two cycles the prototypes of a multilayer tape based on a superconducting Nb–50%Ti alloy were made. Copper was used as a stabiliser of the superconducting state of the conductor. At the initial stage, a multilayer Nb-Ti pack was assembled from niobium and titanium foils. Copper stabilising layers were laid in the pack in the 2nd cycle of tape manufacturing. The mutual diffusion between the Nb- and Ti-layers took place generally at the expense of niobium diffusing into the layers of titanium, with the Nb-50%Ti alloy emerging in their place.

Results: Measurements of the critical current Ic with a perpendicular and parallel orientation of the magnetic field relative to the plane of the layers in the composite showed large anisotropy of Ic, which was the result of the superconducting vortices fixing exclusively at the boundaries of the Nb-Ti-alloy and the Nb-solid solution. In general, the composite was capable of carrying large current in magnetic fields of 5-6 T without long-lasting low-temperature annealing for α-phase deposition, which is necessary in the case of Nb-Ti alloy composites produced by the known technology.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):31-46
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Decreasing of Profile Air Drag to the Train Movement Inside the Tube Transport
Larin O.N., Bokov A.V.

Abstract

Background: The movement of the train in an insulated space with the natural atmospheric pressure is accompanied by energy losses for unproductive work to overcome the profile air drag from the front and rear surfaces of the vehicle. At the same time, there is also a considerable increase of energy costs for overcoming the growing force of oncoming air drag. In order to exclude these energy losses, it is proposed to organize synchronous and volume-balanced pumping of air from the front part of the tube transport and injection of the air into the back part of the tube transport.

Aim: To develop a method of organising air exchange inside the tube transport, which will ensure the reduction of air resistance to the movement of the train.

Methods: The proposed developments are based on well-known national and foreign designs of high-speed tube transport systems, the results of a comparative analysis of tube transport with varying degrees of air pumping (backing vacuum and hard vacuum), taking into account the experience of redistributing the residual air volume in the “Hyperloop” and “TransPod” tube transport systems. The operating parameters of the compressor units that pump air into the internal cavity of the tube when the train is in motion is regulated on the basis of process models of gas dynamics.

Results: A new method and device has been developed for reducing the air drag to the movement of the train by forced air exchange, which provides for the redistribution of air from the front to the rear of the transport tube relative to the vehicle travel direction. For the air redistribution, the external air exchange unit, consisting of air ducts, compressor units, gate valves, and air collectors is used. The process of external air exchange takes place only when the vehicle is in motion, for the movement of the vehicle no prior air exhaust is required. The air redistribution is controlled taking into account the speed of the train, its location in the tube, the design features of the tunnel and vehicle. The speed of the train for each segment of the speed section is normalised depending on the actual performance of the components of the air exchange system. Modes of operation of the compressor units must ensure synchronous redistribution of air from the front to the rear of the tube. The movement of a vehicle along a tube with normal atmospheric pressure in the internal cavity provides conditions for the safe transportation of goods and passengers.

Conclusion: The developed method is designed to reduce the force of air resistance when the train is in motion inside the airtight tube without creating vacuum. The presented developments have good prospects for use in projects of high-speed transport systems of both underground and underwater designs.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):47-59
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Linear Induction Motors without Longitudinal Edge Effect
Solomin V.A., Solomin A.V., Chekhova A.A., Zamchina L.L., Trubitsina N.A.

Abstract

Background: At high speeds of motion of the magnetic-levitation transport (MLT), linear induction motors (LIM) have a secondary longitudinal edge effect (SLEE). SLEE occurs when magnetic field of inductor interacts with the currents of the secondary element (SE) outside the MLT crew. SLEE reduces the efficiency of traction LIM. Therefore, the task of reducing the influence of SLEE is relevant.

Aim: Development and research of a linear induction motor without a secondary longitudinal edge effect.

Methods: To achieve this aim, new designs of linear induction motors have been proposed, which do not have a SLEE. The secondary element of the LIM (track structure of the MLT) is made of cylindrical conductive rods installed with the possibility of rotation. Traction LIM of the MLT equipped with two brushes that close the rods of the SE within the length of the inductor. When the MLT crew moves, the rods outside the inductor are not closed by brushes and there is no current in them. There will be no SLEE. Another method to solve this problem is using reed switches to close and open the rods of the secondary element.

Results: The possibility of increasing the efficiency of the LIM has been achieved.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):60-69
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Levitation Characteristics of a Transport Installation with an Electrodynamic Suspension During a Longitudinal Joint with Road Track
Voevodskii K.E., Strepetov V.M., Sereda G.E.

Abstract

Aim: to propose a technical solution to ensure the lateral stabilization of the vehicle with an electrodynamic suspension. Development of a method for calculating the levitation characteristics of a transport installation with an electrodynamic suspension in the presence of a longitudinal joint in the track. Analysis of the results of theoretical studies.

Мaterials and methods: The article used the methods of the electromagnetic field theory, generalized functions, Fourier transform, analytical and numerical methods for determining quadratures. The program for PC was developed in the Fortran language.

Result: to ensure lateral stabilization of the vehicle with an electrodynamic suspension, it was proposed to introduce a longitudinal insulating joint into the structure of the track bed. A mathematical model is proposed for this system of electrodynamic suspension in approximation of an infinitely wide track structure of rectangular cross section.

A mathematical model is proposed for this system of electrodynamic suspension in approximation of an infinitely wide track structure of rectangular cross section. Numerical integration of these equations was performed by applying the Gauss formula and the Philo method. The results of the calculations allowed us to obtain a number of graphical dependencies of the levitation characteristics on the magnitude of the lateral displacement of the carriage electromagnet from a relatively symmetrical position.

Conclusion: thus, the obtained results of the study fully meet the goal of determining the parameters of the side stabilization of the vehicle with an electrodynamic suspension with a track, containing a longitudinal joint under the assumptions made.

Comparison of the proposed method with other proposed stabilization methods does not reveal the decisive advantages or disadvantages of the new method. In most cases, its most serious drawback is its low levitation quality. However, it is significantly reduced if the movement of the high speed ground transportation vehicle occurs predominantly at high speed, at which the force of aerodynamic drag prevails over the force of electrodynamic braking.

Same relative is and the dignity of the system-high lateral rigidity. The reason for this is that the demands on the lateral stiffness can be quantified only formulated in relation to a particular track HSGT taking into account the timetable and other factors.

In fact, the main destabilizing influences in sideways are inertia at motion on component and crosswind. Its role in choosing the stabilization system could play and other tasks the system subsystems HSGT.

For example, installing additional stabilizing magnets can make it difficult to escape the passenger compartment from the magnetic field. Plays a role also principle and system design of traction. From the above it is clear that the final choice of the lateral stabilization of the research at this stage would be premature.

Proposed and studied in this article a new way to stabilize should be regarded as another possible along with the preceding. The answer to the question on the competitiveness of the new method must be bound to the characteristics of specific trails HSGT. Necessary and further refinement of results associated with the more strict account of edge effect, as well as consideration of the case of uninsulated interface.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):70-82
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The Use of the Bilateral Levitation of Transport Pods Relatively to the Arch Trestle
Sundukov E.Y., Tarabukina N.A.

Abstract

Background: The arch trestle allows using two working surfaces: internal (under the arch) and external (over the arch) which may be used for moving of the transport pods. Transport pods include magnetic field sources, and the trestle is equipped with a stator winding. The stator winding is subdivided into the accelerating winding and suspension and levitation winding. As an option, the winding providing levitation can be replaced with permanent magnets.

Aim: to show capacities of the arch trestle for transportation of passengers and goods.

Methods: patent search, modeling.

Results: simultaneous transportation of goods and passengers is possible both in the same and opposite directions.

Conclusion: the efficiency of the transport system increases due to bilateral movement of modules.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):83-91
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Reasons for and Rational Methods of Magnetically Levitated Trains Dynamic Modelling
Polyakov V.A., Khachapuridze N.M.

Abstract

Background: The synthesis of high-quality dynamics and its analysis are the cardinal tasks of a magnetically levitated train’s (MLT) creating problem.

Aims of the work: Design the paradigm and technique of specified tasks’ rational solution.

Methods: The synthesis of the wanted motion is proposed to carry out by solving the system’s dynamic’s inverse problem, and its preliminary analysis – by solving the same dynamic’s direct problem.

Results: The reasons for MLT’s dynamic’s modeling are identified and substantiated. The paradigm and tensor technique of its computer synthesis and analysis was developed.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):92-105
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Magnetic Levitation Cargo Ransport Role in World Economy
Smirnov S.A., Smirnova O.Y.

Abstract

Background: Currently, the car, water, railway, air and pipe transports are used for cargo and goods transportation. Each kind of cargo transport has its own specific competitive advantages that provide its most effective application at various stages of logistics chain. The economic efficiency of cargo transportation influences the overall economic efficiency, in particular, the gross domestic product. The quality of economic growth as applied to transport branch and its input to the national economy is relevant, since with the current organisation of different transport modes interaction, there are still high transaction costs.

Aim: Study of influence of various modes of transport, including maglev transport, on the economy and economic growth.

Methods: Theoretical and empirical. The paper considers the influence of various modes of transport, that operate in the cargo transport sphere, on the country’s economy. The comparison of existing modes of transport with the maglev transport from the point of view of desired effects is made.

Results: The maglev transport possesses new properties and advantages, which makes it possible to view is as viable and able to provide a qualitative economic growth and resource-based economy if realised.

Conclusion: The most efficient use of resources, the consumption of which should at least not increase and at most decrease, is achieved with the introduction of maglev transport into the transport system, as its economic properties already now excel those of the majority of other types of transport. It is obvious, as to the experts, that in transition to resource-based economy the maglev transport will be major transport for both cargo and passenger transit.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):106-117
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On Assessment of Influence of Innovation Activities Results on the National Economy
Sokolova I.V.

Abstract

Background: Development of Science in Russia is currently in urgent need of a thorough support from the state. Fundamental researches create ground for detalisation of innovative ideas and bring them closer through applied research to their developments and implementation. Ensuring sustainability of the country’s economy is possible only through contributing resources to researches of immediate relevance.

Under existing conditions, special relevance is acquired by development of tools for assessment of additional effects of financing innovative development.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on the national economy of the costs on innovative development of companies.

Methods: Search for and analysis of:

  1. options of assessment of available information about results of scientific researches (both patented and those that are not officially registered as intellectual property);
  2. ways of deriving economic benefit from owning scientific researches’ results with absence of opportunity for their introduction into a company’s activity or for selling.

To assess the influence of expenses for innovative development on the national economy, the index of innovation support for the national economy (ISNE) is suggested to be used.

Results: The algorithm for calculation of ISNE is presented. It is suggested to consider relevant for calculation those expenses of the companies, that work on development independently or with the help of national knowledge generation sector and higher education. These expenses are for:

  • salaries, considering premium;
  • procurement of national equipment and materials;
  • paying for work carried out and services rendered by contracted companies.

All other expenses at this stage are suggested to be deemed as irrelevant.

The factor can be calculated for each company-resident, irrespective of type of activity and field of scientific researches for ID purposes.

Conclusion: For companies that investing considerably in scientific and technical, innovative development, the increase of ISNE can be an additional incentive (with governmental support), will help in drawing attention to existing potential of the Russian science, save and multiply number of scientific schools, maintain high quality of scientific development and their effectiveness.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):118-129
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Mobility on demand – vision of a flexible future urban mobility
Kircher R., Kluehspies J., Fritz E., Koehler R.

Abstract

Background: The present situation in megacities is characterized by traffic congestion, capacity limits of public transportation systems. In addition, environmental regulations due to potential health risks will have an increasing impact on urban transportation systems.

Aim: In this paper, we describe major technology trends in transportation and in information and communication systems which will influence urban transportation in future megacities. Based on these trends a vision of a sustainable urban transportation system is developed.

Method: In a first step, trends in urban development and the individual needs are analyzed. Digitalization of transportation and communication technologies offer new business opportunities for Artificial Intelligence (AI) based services.

Results: The intelligent combination of advanced transportation technologies in large buildings and AI based services enables a vision of “Mobility on Demand”, representing a flexible and sustainable urban transportation in future megacities.

Conclusion: The vision “Mobility on Demand” illustrates the effective and flexible integration of individual transportation needs into public transportation systems. Depending on the standards of future individual vehicles such vehicles could be integrated seamlessly into the urban Maglev transportation system.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2019;5(2):130-138
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