Vol 4, No 4 (2018)

Review
Multicriteria evaluation of the high speed rail, transrapid maglev and hyperloop systems
Janic M.
Abstract

This paper presents the multicriteria evaluation of the High Speed Rail (HSR), TransRapid Maglev (TRM) and Hyperloop (HL) passenger transport system assumed to operate as the mutually exclusive alternatives along the given line/corridor. For such a purpose the methodology is synthesized consisting of the analytical models of indicators of performances of these systems used as the evaluation criteria and the multicriteria Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method. Given the characteristics of infrastructure and rolling stock/fleet of vehicles/trains reflecting the systems’ infrastructural and technical/technological performances, the indicators of operational, economic, environmental, and social performances are defined and modelled respecting the interests and preferences of the particular actors/stakeholders involved. These are users/passengers, the systems’ transport operators, local, regional, and national authorities and investors, and community members.

The proposed methodology is applied to the line/corridor Moscow – St. Petersburg (Russia) by assuming that three HS systems exclusively operate there according to “what-if’ scenario approach. The results indicate that, under given conditions, the HL is the preferable compared to the TRM and HSR alternative.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):5-31
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Standardisation of maglev transportation systems in Russia
Plekhanov P.A., Shmatchenko V.V.
Abstract

Existing regulatory framework in Russia does not include a full set of rules and standards needed, as the main document is absent – Safety Regulations Governing Maglev Transportation Systems. However, in this case the Russian Legislation provides for development and application of a special document, namely Special Technical Conditions (STC). These technical safety requirements to a capital construction object, that include either supplementary technical conditions to those which have not been set yet or are lacking in terms of safety, as well as deviations for the set requirements. Using the international and national experience, the authors and their colleagues have designed nine STC for MLTS. These are “General Design Requirements”, “Guideway”, “Substructure, Artificial Structures, Junctions and Crossings”, “Terminals, Intermediate Stations, Maintenance Facilities and Buildings”, “Propulsion and Power Supply System”, “Train Control System”, “Communication Systems”, “Vehicles”, “Integrated Safety System”. Also, as a result of the study, the English-Russian (Russian-English) MLTS Explanatory Dictionary was compiled.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):32-43
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Hyperloop as an evolution of maglev
Santangelo A.
Abstract

Hyperloop is often described as the "fifth mode of transportation" but, as the race between competing companies around the world intensifies, investors, governments and scientists remain cold and cautious. An educated guess from one of the first civil engineers involved with the design of a real-world hyperloop infrastructure tries to give some direction between hype and pragmatic design

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):44-63
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Modern trends of training specialists for innovative directions of transport development
Guliy I.M., Sivertceva E.S.
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to reveal the features of modern transformations leading to rapid obsolescence of many professions of transport branch and emergence of new ones. The article presents forecast of emergence and formation of new competences of experts as the inevitable condition for transportation management and future transport operation.  

The study rests on the Autor’s curve which reflects the change of employment rate depending on qualification. The graphic-analytical and statistical research methods were used.

The problem specified is acute not only for Russia, but for other countries as well facing rapid technological paradigms change. The necessity to form new competencies for transport workers for efficient functioning of transport industry.

Transport engineering higher education institutions must launch new educational programmes.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):64-76
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Original papers
A new concept of superelevation in magnetic levitation – prodynamic
Jacob A., Monteiro N.
Abstract

Background: The topic of Magnetic Levitation systems, in terms of land mass transport, have created high expectations compared to aviation and also to the high speed railway industry. This new concept comes to revolutionize the terrestrial mass transport, in both the speeds and the subject of friction. Magnetic levitation solves the issue of attrition between material contact and as such may also be an opportunity to solve the question of constant physical superelevation.

Aim: Precisely that point of superelevation coupled with magnetic levitation, eliminating the rigid physical structures to laterally lift the vehicle in a curve. Current magnetic levitation systems do not address this issue of dynamic superelevation. It’s exposed an improvement technology which is a theoretical possibility of a track through a new magnetic line can apply necessary rotation to the vehicle in curve and adjust its rotation according to the speed that vehicle moves.

Methods: In order to make this system to work it is suggested the introduction of a magnetic field in the new line, which will allow the vehicle to rotate in curves and will negate the need of the conventional static superelevation.

This study appeared as a result of an investigation of a master's thesis in civil engineering at ISEP, where the participants created the concept of dynamic superelevation in the context of magnetic levitation. The project was applied to the reformulation of an existing railway network. The study base of this model resulted from a broad survey of current magnetic levitation systems. Then came the idea of creating a third dynamic magnetic field to operate the curved superelevation.

Results: The result of the study was the creation of a new "monorail" system of simple and geometrically constant structure. The new line has the advantage of providing a simple and constant geometry, facilitating the manufacture, assembly and thus making it much more economical compared to the current systems. The cross-section allows the vehicle to fit perfectly and with the creation of rotating magnetic fields, the vehicle can be turned to both sides, at the required inclination, according the speed. With this new concept called ProDynamic, the geometry design in plan is totally independent of the speed practiced by the vehicle, where it can travel in curve at different speeds, but with the same lateral no-compensated acceleration, without detriment of passenger comfort.

Conclusion: Combining existing systems with this new concept, it is possible to create a total freedom in curves and superelevation, which will provide a maximum comfort and significant construction savings. There is therefore no longer a problem of deficiency or excess cant, as currently exists on railways. The advantage in the ProDynamic system is that it is possible to greatly reduce or even eliminate the lateral no-compensated acceleration.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):77-111
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Operational breakdown and performance measure of the transcontinental High-speed magleva
Chao E., Venturi J.
Abstract

Background: Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) systems have a noticeable operating track record in about a dozen countries. Higher speed maglev technology has been built for many intercity and regional lines in China, Germany, Japan, South Korea, United States, Brazil, and other countries. Maglev developers claim that the transcontinental high speed system can outperform the existing HSR and air transport and can achieve higher speed, have lower energy consumption and life cycle costs, attract more passengers, and boost regional economy. The article presents a systematic breakdown of the proposed transcontinental high speed Maglev system and pinpoints critical operational components and implementation measures. The analyses reach the following discussions on the three most important system characteristics.

Firstly, the transcontinental high speed Maglev had to make trade-offs among passenger access time to total travel time, station density to daily maximum operating speed, and operating strategy to daily skip-stop, express, as well as other accelerated services.

Secondly, the correlation between systems capacity management and vehicle interior space design (e.g. seats) has a serious impact on operators’ long-term financial condition. The involvement of identifying the equilibrium between these two factors in a linear algebra method is substantial.

Thirdly, the transcontinental high speed Maglev station must serve as the multimodal transportation hub. To attract passengers; accordingly, increase the ridership and farebox recovery, an unified transfer service on schedule coordination has to be incorporated into the system. Timed Transfer Systems (TTS) had the proven capability of increasing service reliability across different modes. Based on these discussions, the framework and direction of transcontinental high speed Maglev strategic planning is becoming sensible.

Aim: The article addresses the major system design elements of transportation planning and pinpoints corresponding operational strategies, which are useful for the planning and design of maglev. The study will assist system designers, network planners, and operators to understand where the technical and operational boundaries are for this particular mode. Knowing the boundary is useful for the design, planning, and operations of the system. 

Methods: The efforts of literature reviews focus on two fields: composition of major system design elements and interrelation with other modes of transportation. The method examines the foundation of maglev planning.

Results: First, the benefit of speed increase cannot be hasty generalized. The assessment of speed increase needs to break down to different beneficiaries (e.g. operator, passenger, and the community). Second, system capacity depends on its operating speed, service frequency, load factor, and vehicle size. These four factors further determine the operational feasibility of the maglev. Finally, in a dispersed travel pattern, TTS increases transfer reliability and unifies different lines of headway to improve service reliability.

Conclusion: Certain cities and countries are facing similar transportation issues. They are trying to learn from each other. The efforts focus on the establishment of efficient transit systems and the dedicated action to adopt a new mode of transportation (e.g. maglev) for intracity, intercity, transcontinental commutes. The article offers tangible values on transportation planning, systems design, and operation performance, which are critical for the development of the maglev system.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):112-128
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Analysis and solution of eddy current induced in rail for medium and low speed maglev transportation system
Yang Y., Zhang W., Tong L., Peng Q., Luo H., Suo J.
Abstract

Background: For medium and low speed maglev transportation system, the eddy current will be induced in rail, which is made of solid steel, while the train is running. The levitation force of electromagnets will be weakened by the magnetic field generated by eddy current in the rail, especially at the position of the forefront electromagnets. With the increase of train running speed, the eddy current effect will also increase, which will reach 30 % at 100 km/h, and which will directly affect the levitation stability of the train during high-speed running. Put it another way, it will limit the further improvement of the running speed of the medium and low speed maglev train.

Aim: In order to solve the above problem, and compensate the levitation force reduced by the eddy current effect.

Methods: The FEA method is used to obtain the magnetic field distribution and levitation force changing with the train speed. And taking the middle and low speed maglev trains and rails of Changsha Maglev Express as the research object, we have adopted two solutions, and the prototypes of airsprings and levitation magnets are manufactured and tested in the train.

Results: The test result show that the currents of the windings at the front end of the two forefront electromagnets are reduced obviously.

Conclusion: In this paper, the medium and low speed maglev train and rail used by Changsha Maglev Express are studied, the eddy current effect is analyzed, and two solutions are proposed. The results show that the solution methods can alleviate the eddy current effects to some extent.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):129-137
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Software protection of the maglev transport control system
Kornienko A.A., Glukhov A.P., Diasamidze S.V., Shatov A.M.
Abstract

Background: The article examines the issues of regulation and the development of methodological approaches to ensuring the security of the software system for the management of magnetic-leaving transport at all stages of the life cycle, as well as the development of a tool to detect high-level (logical) software vulnerabilities.

Aim: Development of a methodology for the creation of an error-free and impact-resistant software for the management system of magnetic-levitational transport.

Methods: In the development of the methodology, the existing practices of searching for errors and vulnerabilities in software and approaches to the algorithmization of program code were studied.

Results: During the study, a methodology was developed for creating an error-free and impact-resistant software for the management system of magnetic-levitational transport, which makes it possible to exclude the possibility of errors in the software, which significantly increases the safety of the overall transportation process.

Conclusion: The application of the developed technique will improve the security of software for magnetic levitation transport control system from destructive external influences

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):138-145
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Gray relational analysis between the maglev-structural deformation and construction parameters of the shield tunnel crossing the shanghai maglev protected area
Wang G., Hu S., Zeng G., Ye F., Zu W.
Abstract

Background: Shanghai Maglev Demonstration Line is the only commercial high-speed maglev train line in the world, which has multiple functions such as transportation, exhibition, tourism and sightseeing. Besides, Shanghai Maglev Demonstration Line has been in operation for 15 years, and has been operating safely and punctually. Maglev protected area are located within 30 meters of the left and right sides of the Shanghai Maglev Demonstration Line and unrelated persons are not allowed to enter the area. When there were external construction invading the protected area, it is neccessary to do the comprehensive technical monitoring and protection. Without similar project to refer to, Metro Line 13 traversing Shanghai Maglev Line was a big challenge. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to do the comprehensive technical monitoring. Finding the relation between the maglev deformation and shield construction parameters was an important part of the monitoring.

Aim: This thesis aimed at finding the relation between the maglev deformation and shield construction parameters and controlling the maglev deformation in the crossing of Metro Line 13, thus guiding the shield construction.

Methods: This thesis calculated the gray relation between the maglev deformation and shield construction parameters from the cause of deformation of the maglev by the gray relation analysis.

Results: The construction parameters optimization and the sensitivity control are carried out. Meanwhile, combined with the measured results of deformation monitoring, the multi means parallel monitoring data are analyzed synthetically and the data are checked, and the construction parameters are adjusted reasonably to make the pier column deformation in the controllable permissible range, having ensured the safe operation of the maglev.

Conclusion: The calculation results has provided a reference for realizing active control on the influence of shield construction on the maglev and has remedied the defect that could only use deformation monitoring but could not control the deformation actively in the past work. The gray relational analysis has a certain effect on controlling the influence of shield construction on surrounding structures and has certain reference significance for subsequent similar projects.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(4):146-156
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