Vol 4, No 3 (2018)

Cover Page
Review
Bearingless PM synchronous machine with zero-sequence current driven star point-connected active magnetic thrust bearing
Dietz D., Binder A.
Abstract

Common cylindrical bearingless drives require a separate thrust bearing, which is fed by a DC supply. Here, a technique is presented, which enables the feeding of the thrust bearing by an artificially generated zero-sequence current between the two star points of the two parallel windings in the bearingless PM synchronous machine. This way, no additional DC supply for an axial active magnetic bearing is needed. It is replaced by two three-phase inverters as stator winding supply, which are needed in any case to generate torque and lateral rotor force in the motor. This examination explains the technique of adapting the electric potential of the star points in two three-phase windings of the motor. The focus is on the determination of the operating area (maximum zero-sequence current and band width). It is constrained by the bearingless motor due to torque and lateral force ripple as well as additional eddy current losses. On the other hand, the DC link voltage and the modulation degree of the inverter for simultaneous motor operation as well as the bearing inductance limit the system dynamic. It is shown that the proposed technique is applicable for a modulation degree < 0.866, taking into account that other constraints by the bearingless machine and the inverter are mainly noncritical.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):5-25
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Magnetic levitation as the fundamental basis for superfast vacuum levitation transport technologies
Lapidus B.M.
Abstract

The article reviews the strategic trends of transport development that meet the modern requirements of the economy and society. It was revealed that the key trend is to increase the speed of traffic. To achieve breakthrough results in this direction, it is proposed to use magnetic levitation in combination with the use of a vacuum environment - the creation of vacuum-levitation transport systems. It is noted that the Joint Scientific Council of JSC Russian Railways formed the requirements for the creation of such systems and focused attention on the problem of the socio-economic efficiency of its creation. It is concluded that rail transport, in the interests of its strategic competitiveness, should be the initiator and active participant in the creation of vacuum-levitation transport systems, which, in turn, can become an important incentive for integrating the efforts of the world scientific community.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):26-35
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Application and further development of Maglev transportation in China
Lin G., Sheng X.
Abstract

Since the high-speed maglev line in Shanghai was put into operation in 2003, it has been running safely for 15 years, maintaining the highest speed of public ground traffic 430 km/h and 99.8~99.9% punctuality. Since 2001, China ministry of science and technology (MOST) has been supporting the research and development of high speed maglev transportation technology. In 2016, under the support of the MOST, China Railway Rolling stock Corporation (CRRC) started to lead the program of engineering research of Maglev. The aim of the program is to develop 600 km/h high speed Maglev system and 200 km/h medium speed maglev system. The newly developed high speed Maglev system could be tested, verified and applied on the planned Shanghai - Hangzhou high speed Maglev line.      

Since the operation opening of Changsha Maglev Airport Express Line in May 2016, Hunan province has planned to build more maglev line with top speed 100–160 km/h. Following the operation of urban maglev in Changsha and Beijing, the Qingyuan Maglev line in Guangdong province  began to build at the end of 2017. The new maglev line will connect hot spring tourist attractions and Changlong theme park (animal park) in 2019.                               

This paper introduces the application and construction of maglev transportation in China, recent R&D status, further plans and trend of development.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):36-43
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Forecast of Ugra transport development
Bolshanik P.V.
Abstract

Background: The transport industry is leading in the overall structure of the country's economy. In parts of the regions, this industry can be a branch of specialization.

Aim: To forecast further development of the industry in the territory of Ugra.

Method: Analysis based on a questionnaire survey of organizations related to the transport industry in Ugra.

To analyze the further development of the transport industry of Ugra, the methods of SWOT analysis and rating ranking were used.

Results: The study revealed the main and secondary factors of the transport industry of Ugra. The analysis allowed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of transport, opportunities and threats to its development. On the basis of the analysis three rows of the forecast of transport development are given: pessimistic, moderate and optimistic.

Conclusion: Thus, based on the analysis of the data presented, the following conclusions can be drawn:

First, regional or inter-municipal highways, as well as the federal highway, perform a clearly expressed system-forming, supporting role in the common network of Ugra roads - on 8 km of these roads 8.8 km of private and local roads (for example, in Russia this ratio is 2.8 km);

These roads, in comparison with the average indicators for regional or intermunicipal motorways of Russia, have higher loads, both from single types of motor transport, and the total load from all types of motor transport.

 Secondly, measurements of traffic on the bridge over the Ob River in Surgut showed that 44 % of passenger cars and 69 % of trucks, as well as 54 % of buses in the transport stream, consisted of transport from 32 other regions of the country.

Taking into account that Rosstat cites the volumes of cargo transportation by organizations in the place of their registration, it is possible to assume with full justification that the actual volume of transported goods along the roads of Yugra is much larger. Above and the dynamics of growth in the volumes of goods transported by road.

 Thirdly, the industrial orientation of economic development predetermines the vastness of economic ties between Ugra and other regions of the country, which places regional inter-regional importance for the main regional roads, and therefore the construction and maintenance of such highways should be carried out not only at the expense of the budget of the Autonomous Okrug, but also of the federal budget.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):44-64
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Service experiences Maglev vehicles Shanghai
Rampelmann R., Köhler R.
Abstract

In the late 1990s thyssenkrupp Transrapid GmbH successfully qualified the Maglev Vehicle TR08 and obtained the type approval certificate. Based on that design, in 2001-2003 three five-car vehicles for the first commercial high speed Maglev Line in Shanghai have been manufactured and set into operation. The VIP-Run took place over 15 years ago and the commercial operation has been running for almost 15 years at great availability.

The Transrapid system concept of small autonomous redundant electronics based modules facilitates significantly smooth maintenance - diagnosis, testing and system inspection.

Thanks to intelligent diagnostics, the use of easily interchangeable plug-in units, the dimensioning of the spare parts inventory according to the expected failure rates and the replenishment lead time, the maintenance efforts are still within the forecast range at the beginning of the project. Furthermore, the maintenance concept is essentially unchanged since the beginning.

There are no special materials that are subject to a potential shortage or price leap, but all according to normal industrial base.

Thanks to the low level of stress to components on board, most electrical and electronic units are still on-board as original equipment, which are 15 years old and at no end of life is visible.

But in case of repair or replacement, the challenge is the adaptation to the volatile market of electronic components. This includes the necessary lead-time for adaptive development and qualification, which has to be considered.

On the side of the vehicle supplier, a small smart team of electronics experts is managing obsolescence and compensates discontinuation.

The paper tells how it works and appreciates trustful cooperation of the supplier in Europe with the operator in China.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):65-71
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Original papers
The Maglev-systems on the basis of trestle of arch type
Sundukov E.Y., Selivanov L.F., Sundukova V.E.
Abstract

Aim: To show that the trestle of arch type allows to realize various limiters of movements of the levitating vehicles.

Methods: Patent search, comparison with analogs, system approach.

Results: Options of designs of trestles for freight and passenger traffic are offered.

Conclusion: In all cases it is necessary to look for a compromise between achievement of the goal of functioning of maglev-system and costs of its construction and service.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):72-79
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MULTI® - rope-less elevator demonstrator at test tower Rottweil
Appunn R., Frantzheld J., Jetter M., Löser F.
Abstract

Background: The world’s first linear motor driven passenger elevator system MULTI® started test operation at test tower Rottweil, Germany. A full scale showcase has been installed, the commissioning is finished and extensive testing activities are performed. The new test tower in Rottweil provides the perfect test and certification environment to get this ground-breaking product onto the market.

The propulsion of the cars is based on an ironless long-stator linear motor with distributed active drive, motor and sensor elements. This technology allows cars to move individually in the same elevator shaft without any ropes. The same type of linear motor will also be used to exchange cars horizontally from one shaft to another. Herewith a movement of the cars in a loop or any vertical and horizontal travel path can be realized. The testing procedures to characterize the operation of the MULTI® include measurements of electrical, mechanical and thermal quantities.

Smart energy management feeds power of descending cars for rising cars. To overcome the high power demand for acceleration cars, an energy buffering system is installed.

Aim: This paper focuses on the power and energy management of the MULTI® demonstrator. The benefit of intelligent buffering strategy is depicted.

Methods: Full scale prototype, numerical simulation, testing and measurement.  

Results: This paper presents first measurement results of the MULTI® demonstrator mainly focusing on the power and energy characteristics of the propulsion system.

Conclusion: Using an energy buffering system, the peak input power of the MULTI® can be reduced to 50% of the peak power level without energy buffer. The power from downward moving cars is recuperated and used for upward driving cars, balanced by the energy buffer without stressing the grid.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):80-89
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Control of three-degree-of-freedom resonant actuator driven by novel vector control
Kato M., Hirata K.
Abstract

This paper presents a novel vector control method for three-degree-of-freedom resonant actuator in order to improve its controllability. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified through electromagnetic field analysis using 3-D finite element method:

Issue: A three-degree-of-freedom resonant actuator has a great potential to broaden the application range of linear oscillatory actuators because it has a lot of advantages: high efficiency, simple structure, etc. However, this actuator has low controllability because the magnetic structure of each axis is not independent.

Aim: To establish a novel vector control technique suitable for our actuator.

Materials and methods of the studies: Electromagnetic analysis employing 3-D finite element method.

Results: In this study, the novel vector control theory was constructed on the basis of four-phase system. The new dq model was achieved by considering 3-D coordinate transformation. The proposed method is able to decrease the influence of thrust interference from other axis and achieved higher controllability.

Conclusion: The results of the study will contribute to a practical use of the three-DOF resonant actuator.

 

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):90-101
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Speed increasing scheme by using 3000v dc power supply for low-speed Maglev
Wang X., Jin Y., Lin Y., Lu D., Qin F.
Abstract

Background: Low-speed maglev is usually designed to run at a maximum speed of about 100~110 km/h, the system does not have any advantage to the traditional urban railway transportation system at the aspect of running speed.

Aim: Increase the speed of low-speed Maglev is an urgent task for future promotion.

Methods: This paper presents a speed increasing scheme by using 3000 V DC power supply instead of original 1500 V DC.

Results: Under this condition, the max output voltage of propulsion inverter could be doubled. For reason that the insulation of linear induction motor has enough margin, only small adjustment of motor is needed to adapt the doubled voltage.

Conclusion: To calculate the performance of low-speed maglev while using 3000 V DC, a T-model circuit of single-sided linear induction motor is built, and the result shows that the maximum running speed could be increased to over 160 km/h. This scheme provides a promising way for speed increasing, and it’s a simple and economical approach to enhance the competitiveness of low-speed maglev.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):102-116
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Maglev freight - one possible path forward in the U.S.A.
Wolek A.
Abstract

Background: As high-speed rail and other transportation technologies are moving forward and gaining funding in the United States, the push for MagLev is not receiving the necessary support that would make it a viable alternative in the near future. Major changes in the approach to implementing MagLev could make a better case for it, specifically for carrying freight. One alternative that has been considered in the past is the modification of existing freight railways to support MagLev. For this to be economically feasible and practical, such a solution has to be able to support both conventional freight trains and MagLev freight.   

Aim: The successful application of Partially Magnetically-Levitated Freight (PMLF) technology achieved by integrating superconducting MagLev technology with current railroad design and operations.

Methods: A MagLev freight system that is envisioned to use existing rail routes must be designed to be compatible with the existing railway infrastructure. To accomplish this, every component utilized by the railroads must be examined in detail to determine if and how it could be affected by the proposed PMLF. In addition, components that will need to be modified for PMLF operation must undergo a retrofit design and testing process. The design scope must also include an examination of all existing tasks and activities that are being performed by the railroads such as track maintenance and repair. Any procedures that affect or are affected by the addition of PMLF will need to be modified. Finally, superconducting MagLev technology must be optimized and advanced for application to PMLF.   

Opinions and Discussions: The dual use of railway lines has substantial cost advantages when compared to building new dedicated MagLev freight corridors. In fact it could make the entire proposition very appealing if proven to be technically feasible. However, there are certain limitations and concerns that would cause policy makers to reject such a proposal unless such obstacles can be shown to be temporary and non-critical. Essential rail installations such as switches are presently difficult to modify in a way that would ensure reliable functionality for both MagLev and conventional freight trains, and grade crossings pose safety risks. It is difficult to envision the tremendous leap forward of merging MagLev with existing freight rail lines when much more basic technologies such as positive train control are not even fully implemented. Consequently, it is a challenge to advance MagLev in the United States where new dedicated freight corridors are considered to be cost-prohibitive and dual use railway lines pose uncertainties that railroad companies simply do not want to solve. However, there is one more solution has not been considered that would allow a MagLev freight train to navigate on existing railway infrastructure without disrupting traditional rail utilization. This solution is a partially magnetically-levitated freight train.

Results: After reviewing the fundamental components, systems and operations of the railways in the United States, it will be feasible and practical to introduce magnetic levitation technology to assist in moving freight on existing rail routes. PMLF trains will be able to take advantage of magnetic levitation on sections where the track has been upgraded to allow its use and much higher speed while still being able to travel on unmodified sections with the same speed as traditional trains.

Conclusion: Modifying existing freight rail with magnetic “quasi-lift” technology is a much lower cost alternative to building an entirely new MagLev infrastructure. This alternative will provide very important benefits including enhancing safety in the rail industry. In its first phase of implementation, the proposed PMLF system will levitate a significant portion of the weight of the train but still utilize the existing steel rails for traction and guidance. The most evident advantages of this approach include reduced wear on rail and other supporting elements, and a significant reduction in friction and energy use. Locomotives, freight cars and all other components could be made lighter and travel speeds will increase dramatically due to less impact and other effects. Later phases of implementation will focus on magnetic traction and guidance. The acceptance and success of this partially levitated system will eventually lead to fully levitated freight transport technology. Sometimes it is necessary to take smaller steps to achieve the desired future.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):117-133
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Empirical investigation of possible concerns regarding the use of magnetic levitation elevators
Kirchner M.
Abstract

Aim: This study focused on an issue regarding an innovation of magnetic levitation elevators which was by different media coverage indicated as being unresolved: Are potential users of magnetic levitation elevators concerned about the safe use of these elevators and, if so, what kind of concerns exist?

Methods of the studies: To contribute a first scientifically sound assessment to this, a three-day face-to-face survey at the elevator test tower in Rottweil (Baden-Wuerttemberg), where aforesaid elevator technology is tested, has been conducted. (Touristic) visitors of the tower and the observation platform on it have been surveyed a standardized questionnaire.

Results: The results have shown that the average tendency of prospective conceivable users tends to be free of concerns. In addition, a share of about one-sixth has both expressed and concretized concerns. Those relate mainly to new characteristics of this elevator technology – absence of ropes, magnetic levitation, magnetic field presence – partially associated with known aspects such as power loss.

Conclusion: The study provides an explorative contribution to the topic described. Thusly it seems to be particularly interesting for both researchers willing to look further at this or similar areas and manufacturers or future clients of the technology in the context of, for instance, communicating its prospective implementations.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):134-142
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Magnetically levitated train’s longitudinal motion (Simulation results)
Polyakov V.A., Khachapuridze N.M.
Abstract

Background: The no-stationary regimes of the magnetically levitated train’s (MLT) motion were the object of research.

Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate its dynamic qualities and loading in such regimes.

Methods: The work was carried out by conducting a series of experiments with a computer model of train’s dynamics.

Results: The simulation results reflect its motion in the modes of acceleration, passage of the tunnel, as well as service and emergency braking.

Conclusion: An analysis of these results made it possible to evaluate the dynamic properties of a train in various non-stationary motion modes and its loading in their process.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):143-153
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Research on speed sensorless control of Maglev train with double-end power supply
Sun P., Ge Q., Li Y., Wang X.
Abstract

Background: The core technology of the stable operation of the maglev train is how to accurately obtain the train speed, position and motor angle information.

Aim:  Using speed sensorless control method to estimate the speed and position of the maglev train.

Methods of the studies: In the double-end power supply mode of the maglev train, the principle of the extended back electromotive force (EEMF) of the AC motor is extended to the control of the long stator permanent magnet synchronous linear motor.

Results: The mathematical model for the power supply system of long-stator permanent magnet linear synchronous motor is established; based on the principle of EEMF of rotating motor, the EEMF observer is designed. The speed of the maglev train and the rotor angle are obtained by the method of phase locked loop (PLL).

Conclusion: Through the semi-physical simulation experiment, the speed sensorless control method is verified to be effective.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3):154-163
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