Vol 4, No 2 (2018)

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Review
High-speed container transport system
Kireev A.V., Kozhemyaka N.M., Kononov G.N.
Abstract

Background: The new scope of application for vehicles equipped with magnetic suspension is the fright container transportation. In order to realize the transit potential of the country, the increase in mean speed of the container trains is required.

Aim: The present work aims to explore the possibilities to develop the high-speed transport system equipped with magnetic suspension for container transportation along Euro-Asian land bridge.

Methods: As the research tools used methods of situational analysis, computer modeling, transport geography, technical and economic analysis.

Results: The market analysis results of the transit container transportation have shown that the major challenge for Russian transit development is the constrained traffic capacity of the existing transport corridors. The drastic solution to the problem can be the construction of a new high-speed transport system. The following factors determining the conditions for the creation of the new transport system have been identified: use of transport possibilities of the Azov-Black Sea basin; ensuring accessibility of the northern territories; development of technical solutions for the creation of a transport system with low-cost infrastructure. The combined traction levitation system has been developed based on the extremely simple design of the linear switched reluctance motor. The experimental researches of the full-functional physical model of the transport platform have been performed. The assessment of investment project efficiency has shown that despite the large start-up investment in the track infrastructure, the project has positive economic effect.

Practical importance: The computer model of the combined traction levitation system based on the linear switched reluctance motor has been designed. The concept of constructing a new transport system is proposed, taking into account the characteristics of the proposed operational region in poorly developed territories. The high-speed route has been proposed connecting the Azov-Black sea basin with the Pacific coastline and completely passing through the territories of Russia including some northern regions. The transit potential assessment has shown that due to the transit time reduction it is possible to attract the container freights with traffic volume of 1,52 million in twenty-foot equivalentunit.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):5-18
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Innovations and performance of Italian UAQ4 superconducting magnetic levitated system
Gino D., Giovanni L.
Abstract

This article concerned with technological innovations and performance of the UAQ4 Italian maglev train project which aims mainly to reduce energy consumption by eliminating any ordinary resistance to motion (magnetic drag included), except the aerodynamic drag if it operates in atmospheric environment.

The technological feasibility of the UAQ4 suspension and propulsion devices has been patented and successfully laboratory tested.

The train architecture and the work’s principles of suspension and propulsion devices are all innovative, with concepts and technologies close to the aeronautical transport system.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):19-29
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A method of thrust ripple suppression for long stator linear synchronous motor
Mu S., Kang J., Wang S., Liu Y., He C.
Abstract

With the advantages of high speed, low noise and high efficiency, the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) type maglev train has a good prospect in railway transportation. It is based on the long stator linear synchronous motor (LSLSM). However, due to cogging effect, end effect and the harmonics in the stator current and flux density distribution around the air-gap, the thrust generated by the LSLSM fluctuates. The thrust ripple brings noise, drop of control accuracy, even causes the resonance of train. In this paper, the thrust ripple produced by the cogging effect and flux linkage harmonics is analyzed. Then a method of harmonic current injection is proposed to compensate cogging force and reduce the thrust ripple, without influence the decoupling control of traction and suspension system. The injected current harmonics are controlled under multiple rotating reference frames independently. Finally, based on voltage equations of harmonics, the decoupled harmonic current controllers with harmonic voltage feedforward are designed, which improve the performance of current harmonics response and thrust ripple suppression. Simulation results on Simulink verify the effectiveness of proposed thrust ripple suppression method for LSLSM.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):30-44
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Original papers
A special excitation system for analysis of coupling characteristics of thrust and levitation force of maglev train
Rao J., Wang K., Wang B., Ge Q., Shi L., Li Y.
Abstract

Background: In the maglev train propelled by long stator linear synchronous motor (LSLSM), the thrust characteristics are one of important points to evaluate the performance of the system. However, coupling effect exists between the propulsion and levitation system. Therefore, the interference from the levitation system must be considered when the propulsion system is designed.

Aim: The article focus on the analysis of coupling characteristics of thrust and levitation force of maglev train, and a special excitation system is designed for the study.

Methods: In order to study the thrust performance under the fluctuating air gap field under laboratory conditions, a rotating synchronous motor has been designed to imitate the long stator linear synchronous motor applied in high speed maglev train. And a special excitation system is designed for the rotating synchronous motor, which can simulate the fluctuation of the exciting current during the actual operation of maglev train. The air gap of the rotating synchronous motor is kept as constant, and the fluctuating excitation current is added to the excitation winding of the rotating synchronous motor, thus the simulation of air gap magnetic field variation is achieved.

Results: The special excitation system of the experimental motor is introduced in detail.

Conclusion: The relationship between thrust and levitation force of long stator linear synchronous motor (LSLSM) in maglev train is strong coupling, non-linear, and dynamic. Complete decoupling of thrust and levitation force is not easy to be achieved. The experimental platform has been built to study the coupling characteristics of thrust and levitation force of maglev train.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):45-51
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Dzungaria corridor for vacuum magnetic levitation transport: lost opportunities or weighted optimism?
Bogachev V.A., Terentyev Y.A., Koledov V.V., Bogachev T.V.
Abstract

Background:  The complex of issues arising when considering possible options for the implementation of Eurasian transcontinental high-speed land transport corridors operating on the basis of vacuum magnetic-levitation technologies is analyzed.  The exclusivity of Russia’s geographical position in a substantial part lies in the fact that it is through its territory that China can be directly linked by these corridors to Western Europe and also to North America, the rationale is done.

Aim:  Possible routes connecting Beijing and Shanghai with Moscow are analyzed. Transport highways of a truly innovative type will solve the urgent task of geopolitical level - to organize the states located on the Eurasian continent in a qualitatively new civilizational construction. The purpose of the research is as follows: to develop methods of solving the problems of finding optimal variants for the location of high-speed land transport corridors using computer mathematics systems. This should take into account the features of the territory, through which the transport route is planned to be carried out.

Methods:  The economic, political, logistical, geographical, technical and technological aspects of these projects are discussed. Optimization methods are used, in particular, the calculus of variations.

Results: After the creation of a sufficiently informative and detailed informal picture, the basics of the corresponding mathematical models are constructed.

Conclusion: The historical area of Dzungaria is considered as the location of the main intermediate terminal for high speed vacuum magnetic levitation transport.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):52-61
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Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of high-speed maglev transportation five-segment propulsion system based on dSPACE
Qin F., Lin Y., Lu D.
Abstract

Aim: For exploring and testing the key technology of high-speed maglev transportation propulsion control system, this paper designs and establishes a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) real-time simulation system of the high-speed maglev transportation five-segment propulsion system.

Materials and methods of the studies: According to the route conditions and propulsion segment division of Shanghai maglev demonstration and operation line, the real-time simulation platform based on dSPACE multiprocessor systems is implemented. The simulation system can achieve the functional simulation of all the high-power related equipment in the 5-segment area, including 8 sets of high-power converter units, 2 sets of medium-power converter units, 2 sets of low-power converter units, five-segment trackside switch stations and long-stator linear synchronous motors. The mathematical models of linear motors and converters are built in MATLAB/Simulink and System Generator, after compiling, they can be downloaded and executed in Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA). All the interfaces connecting the simulation system to the propulsion control system physical equipment use real physical components as in the field, such as analog I/O, digital I/O, optical signals and Profibus.

Results: By using CPU+FPGA hardware configuration, the simulation steps are greatly shortened and the response speed and accuracy of real-time simulation system are improved. The simulation system can simulate multiple operating modes such as multi-segment, multi-vehicle, double-track, double-feeding, step-by-step stator section changeover, and so on. The simulation results show that the maximum speed of the simulation system can reach 500 km/h.

Conclusion: This HIL system can provide detailed real-time on-line test and verification of high speed maglev propulsion control system.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):62-72
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The Russian version of the transport system “Hyperloop”
Kim K.K.
Abstract

Aim: development of the Russian version of the high-speed transport system “Hyperloop” characterized by improved technical and economic indicators.

Methods: We use the method of perforating the shell of the head part of the passenger capsule is used, the movement of which is carried out by a linear electric motor with a stator winding located on the pipe.

Results: As the research showed at a speed of about 500 km/h for the creation of vacuum we will spend more energy than overcoming the friction of the capsule on air. Therefore the density of air in the pipe can be lowered only by 1.5–2 times.

Conclusion: The construction of the vacuum-levitating transport in Russia is reasonable and justified economically but only among the densely populated centers, i.e. mainly in the European part of Russia.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):73-91
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Adaptive vibration control of the electromagnet-track coupled high frequency resonance for an urban maglev system
Zhou D., Yu P., Li J., Cui P., Song M.
Abstract

This paper is a study of the electromagnet-track coupled high frequency resonance that frequently occurs in the urban maglev systems, it includes the following points:

Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the principle underlying the high frequency resonance occurs between the maglev train and the track, and to develop an appropriate vibration control algorithm which can be applied in the levitation controller, such that the resonance can be eliminated when the maglev train travels along the track.

Materials and methods of the studies: In this paper, the model of the electromagnet-track coupled system is firstly established, in which some special cases, which correspond to the situations when the screws that fasten the F-rail to the sleepers are fatigue, or the stiffness of the rubber plates beneath the sleepers weaken for temperature reasons, are studied; and the reason that leads to the coupled resonance are explained as well. Secondly, an adaptive vibration control algorithm, which consists of a vibration observer and a tunable adaptive filter, is designed to suppress the high frequency electromagnet-track coupled resonance.

Results: Using this algorithm, when the train arrives at the spots where the coupled resonance may occur, the vibration observer will detect the occurring of the vibration and estimates its frequency, and then activate the adaptive filter and tune it to absorb the vibration.

Conclusion: The test indicates that this algorithm is capable of tuning itself to handle the unpredictable coupled resonance that occurs along the track, and it is simple and can be easily integrated into the levitation control code in a digital levitation control system.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):92-106
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A new concept of modular magnetic levitation train for urban transport
Cavagnaro M., Delle Site V.
Abstract

Aim: The aim of our project is to solve all technological and functional problems related to the development of the suspended urban Maglev, while maintaining the requirement of simplicity and low cost of construction, operation and maintenance. Both the infrastructure and the vehicle are designed to be industrially produced and assembled on site.

Methods of the studies: Our study is based on the theoretical and experimental results obtained during a project of the Italian National Research Council, concerning the performances of opposing permanent magnets, the design of the linear synchronous motor and the possible solutions for realizing the guidance system. On the basis of these results the study of the suspended system was carried out.

Results: The paper describes the suspended urban Maglev with PM/PM primary suspension (with opposing permanent magnets) and proposes a mechanical guidance system that uses for stabilization the same repulsive forces between permanent magnets. We also propose a new configuration with HTS/PM primary suspension (with high temperature superconductors opposed to permanent magnets), evaluating pros and cons of this solution. Finally we provide design data on the linear synchronous motor suitable for our system.

Conclusion: This paper describes our proposal for a suspended urban Maglev using permanent magnets; our interest focuses on the need to further develop industrially feasible solutions, easy to build and manage, in order to propose a system that is also commercially viable and competitive. The identified advantages justify further studies.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):107-119
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Design of single-sided linear induction motor for low-speed Maglev vehicle in 160 km/h and variable slip frequency control
He Y., Wang Y., Lu Q., Zhang L., Liang F.
Abstract

Background: The mid-low speed Maglev train adopts the single-sided linear induction motors (SLIMs) as drive part, of which design and control method has become research hotspot when the velocity is elevated from 120 km/h to 160 km/h.

Aim: For SLIMs applied in 160 km/h low-speed maglev train, the design scheme is introduced and then a novel variable slip frequency control method is proposed.

Methods of the studies: This control method adopts low slip frequency at start-up to produce large starting traction force and high slip frequency during high velocity area to obtain great power. The influence to the normal force is also investigated.

Results: With this method, the weight of the system can be effectively reduced and the lightweight design of SLIM is realized.

Conclusion:  The novel variable slip frequency control method meets the requirement of both high starting acceleration and enough residual acceleration for 160 km/h mid-low speed maglev train.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):120-128
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Influence analysis of track irregularity on running comfort of Maglev train
Huang J., Zhou X., Shang L., Wu Z., Xu W., Wang D.
Abstract

Background: In this article, the TR08 car of the Shanghai Magnetic Train Demonstration Line was prototyped and a multi-body dynamics simulation model was established. And based on the low-interference track irregularity power spectrum in Germany, track irregularity data was obtained. Used dynamic simulation software, completed the dynamic simulation analysis of the vehicle-rail model controlled by the proportion-integral-derivative control system PID parameters. It can be concluded that the vibration of trains passing through irregular tracks at different speeds, and evaluated its comfort. The optimal solution for the control of the PID parameters of the train also has been derived.

Aim: Evaluation of operational comfort and suspension gap control effect of Shanghai Maglev Train Demonstration Line by simulation analysis.

Materials and methods of the studies: Simulation analysis.

Results: The vibration acceleration and suspension gap of Shanghai Maglev Train Demonstration Line has been obtained.

Conclusion: By adjusting the parameters of PID control system, the vibration acceleration of train can be reduced and the ride comfort can be improved.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):129-140
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Optimization of the auxiliary stopping area planning in the middle-to-high speed Maglev
Lai Q., Liu J., Meng L., Chai X., Wang Q., Xu Y.
Abstract

Background: The Auxiliary Stopping Area (ASA) is the special section that possesses power supply rail and personnel evacuation facilities, whose quantities and locations in a line are of great significance to reduce construction cost and improve transportation efficiency for the middle-to-high speed maglev.

Aim: This paper focuses on optimizing the length and location of the ASA for the middle-to-high speed maglev system to improve the robustness of maglev line.

Methods of the studies: Two evaluation indexes which reflect the ASA restricts on the train operation process was proposed. A model for optimizing the setting of the ASA is constructed, and solved by the genetic algorithm.

Results: The result of numerical examples shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the performances of the ASA.

Conclusion: This paper proposed two indexes to reflect the impact of station settings on train operations, which provides a method to optimize the ASA from qualitative optimization to quantitative optimization.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):141-151
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Electromagnetic fields related to high speed transportation systems
Kircher R., Klühspies J., Palka R., Fritz E., Eiler K., Witt M.
Abstract

Issue: The potential health risks on passengers and the environment related to electromagnetic fields caused by the operation of electrically driven high speed transportation systems has become a major issue. Especially the magnetic flux density or induction can generate physiological effects in body tissues.

Aim: In this paper, we compare calculated and experimental values of electromagnetic fields in rail-wheel systems such as ICE with the Maglev-systems Transrapid and the JR Maglev-system, based on available data.

Method: To estimate the impact on passengers, the field contributions generated by the power supply system as well as by the drive and suspension systems are taken into account. For the comparison, the peak values of the electromagnetic fields have been considered.

Results: The results show, that there are no health risks from the electric fields. Regarding the magnetic induction, the calculated the peak values remain well below the limits given by national regulations. In the case of the Transrapid and the JR Maglev system, the measured peak values in the environment and inside the vehicle depend on the levitation and the guidance technology and the geometrical parameters. The JR Maglev system requires effective magnetic shielding measures which are connected with heavy materials. Since such materials may have a negative influence on the energy balance and the economics of operation, R&D efforts are focusing on the optimization of materials and the structure of shields.

Conclusion: In high speed transportation systems there are no potential risks from electrical fields. Regarding magnetic fields, the induction generated by the power supply and the drive system remain well below the frequency dependent limits. The situation is different for magnetic levitation systems, depending on the suspension and guidance technology. Especially the JR Maglev requires effective shielding measures. The shielding materials may have a negative impact on the energy balance.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):152-166
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Multifunctional linear induction motor with longitudinal-transverce magnetic flux for magnetic-levitational transport
Solomin V.A., Solomin A.V., Koledov V.V., Trubitsina N.A.
Abstract

Background: Traction linear induction motors (LIM) at the current stage of human society development are the most promising for high-speed magnetic-levitation transport (MLT) and are already used in a number of commercial projects. Linear induction motors can be executed with longitudinal, transverse and longitudinal-transverse magnetic flux and have a large number of design options.

Aim: In addition to traction efforts, LIM develops the forces of magnetic-levitation and lateral stabilization (self-stabilization). The efforts of magnetic-levitation of linear induction motors with longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux are very significant in the zone of large slides (at low speeds) and decrease with increasing speed of the magnetic-levitation transport. To a lesser extent, the decrease in slip (at high speeds) affects the magnetic-levitation forces developed by a number of design variants of linear induction motors with a longitudinal-transverse magnetic flux, in which magnetic fields traveling in a transverse direction towards each other are additionally used. This is explained by the fact that at high and low velocities MLT, the LIM slip will be equal to unity relatively oppositely running in the transverse direction of the magnetic fields and the magnetic suspension forces will be maximum.

Materials and Methods: Running towards each other in the transverse direction of the MLT movement, magnetic fields cross the electrically conductive secondary element (playing the role of the track structure of the high-speed transport system) and induce electromotive forces in it, under the influence of which currents will flow.

Results: As a result, cross counter-directional mechanical forces are created which, in the symmetrical arrangement of the MLT crew relative to the track structure, are mutually balanced and do not have any effect on the motion of the magnetic-levitation transport. At lateral (transverse) displacement of the high-speed transport on the magnetic suspension relative to the track structure, the equilibrium of the transverse mechanical forces is disrupted and, under the effect of the effort difference, the MLT crew will be automatically returned to the original symmetrical position.

Conclusion: The distribution of magnetomotive forces (MMF) of a linear induction motor with a longitudinal-transverse magnetic flux, whose magnetic system is formed by the combination of longitudinally and transverse laminated cores, on the teeth of which the coils of a concentrated three-phase winding are located, is considered. The relations are represented in the form of a double Fourier series for calculating the resultant MMF value in the air gap of a linear induction motor with a longitudinal-transverse magnetic flux.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(2):167-179
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