Vol 3, No 4 (2017)

Cover Page
Prerequisites for the creation of a high-speed container transport system
Kireev A.V., Kozhemyaka N.M., Kononov G.N.

The new scope of application for vehicles equipped with magnetic suspension is the fright container transportation. In order to realise the transit potential of the country, the increase in mean speed of the container trains is required.

Objective. The purpose of the work is to explore the possibilities to develop the high-speed transport system equipped with magnetic suspension for container transportation along Eurasian land bridge.

Methods. The following methods and analysis have been used as research instruments: case study, computer modeling, transport geography and technical and economic analysis.

Results. The market analysis results of the transit container transportation have shown that the major challenge for Russian transit development is the constrained traffic capacity of the existing transport corridors. The drastic solution of the problem can be the construction of a new high-speed transport system. The following factors determining the conditions for the creation of the new transport system have been identified: the use of the Azov-Black sea basin transportation facilities, provision of the accessibility of the northern areas; the development of technical solutions ensuring the design of the transport system with low cost infrastructure. The combined traction levitation system has been developed based on the extremely simple design of the linear switched reluctance motor. The experimental researches of the full-functional physical model of the transport platform have been performed. The assessment of investment project efficiency has shown that despite large start-up investment in the track infrastructure, the project has positive economic effect.

Practical importance. The computer model of the combined traction levitation system based on the linear switched reluctance motor has been designed.

The concept of the new transport system construction has been introduced taking into account the characteristics of the supposed operating test sites in poorly developed areas. The high-speed route has been proposed connecting the Azov-Black sea basin with the Pacific coastline and completely passing through the territories of Russia including some northern regions. The transit potential assessment has shown that due to the transit time reduction it is possible to attract the container freights with traffic volume of 1.52 million in twenty-pounds equivalent.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):5-41
Original papers
Comparative analysis of frequency scaling algorithms for signal processing in small-size mobile platforms
Erdyneev Z.T., Geltser A.A., Velikanova E.P., Panokin N.V.

Introduction. With the development of hardware and computer systems, which improve qualitative characteristics of synthetic aperture radars, with their dimensions limited, many new systems have appeared that allow using more accessible and widespread mobile platforms such as a car, quadcopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

Problem. The use of new types of platforms leads to additional distortions associated with features of the geometry of the radar performance and more severe trajectory instabilities. Thus, new synthetic aperture radar systems should have special requirements for both software and hardware, which differ from classical systems.

Objective. The aim of the work is the comparison various algorithms that are used in modern radiovision systems to obtain high-quality radar images that can be integrated into various kinds of mobile platforms.

Methods. The method of frequency scaling and various modifications of this method are taken as a basic algorithm, including additional algorithms for compensating trajectory instabilities. For comparison of algorithms, the system geometry for automobiles and aircraft systems are considered and simulations were performed with the presence of point reflectors at different distances and the distortion of the platform motion.

Results. The difference of the considered algorithms in the form of flowcharts and mathematical formulas is shown. Based on results of the simulation the use of the basic frequency scaling algorithm at distances corresponding to the geometry of the automobile system leads to the distortion of the response along the azimuth. In addition, the use of the modified algorithm for compensating trajectory distortion allows correct focusing the targets at different distances.

Conclusion. The proposed combination of modified algorithms of trajectory distortion and frequency scaling allows focusing the image evenly throughout the frame and improving the quality of the image in the near zone.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):42-74
Determination of inductance of vehicle electromagnet in magnetic levitation transprort system
Sereda G.E., Strepetov V.M.

Objective. Of the work consists in receiving new analytic expressions for determination of inductance of vehicular electromagnets of transport levitation systems.

Methods. The key feature of calculation model of onboard coils in accordance with their inductance on the example of squared electromagnets lies an assumption about a smallness of the size «heights» in comparison with its other geometrical sizes. There is also an assumption that thickness of a skin layer of the conductor significantly surpasses cross sectional size of the wire making the coil. The single-turn coil is considered, inductance of an actual electromagnet is accepted proportional to a square of the number of turns. When calculating inductance the dimensionless quantities are used. As an absolute, a quarter of perimeter of the coil on the centerline is chosen. The condition of obtaining the approximate formula for calculation of inductance of the flat rectangular coil is the small thickness of a winding in comparison with the geometrical sizes of the coil.

Results. Accurate analytical expression for inductance of a «thin» source of square-shaped magnetic field as the algebraic sum of elementary functions has been received. Results of a numerical analysis show dependence of the relative inductance of the square-shaped flat coil on thickness relation to its minimum size. Influence of «elongation» of the coil (relation of length to width) is investigated. It is noted that inductance decreases with decrease of «elongation», and also with increase in the relation of thickness to the minimum size.

Practical importance. The approximate formula for calculation of value of inductance has been obtained. Its uncertainty does not exceed 14 % in the areas of changes of all geometrical parameters of an electromagnet is output. Borders of practical application of the received analytic expressions at the accepted assumptions have been set.

The received expressions are fairly simple structurally and are easily programmed

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):75-88
A new method of calculating the state of stress in granular materials under plane strain conditions
Alexandrov S.E., Lyamina E.A.

The system of equations comprising the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition and the stress equilibrium equations may be studied independently of the flow law. This system of equations is hyperbolic. Accordingly, to solve the aforementioned system of equations, it is reasonable to apply the method of characteristics. In the special case of plasticity theory for materials whose yield criterion does not depend on the average stress, two methods are used to construct an orthogonal net of characteristics and to determine the stress field: the R-S method and Mikhlin’s coordinate method. In the case of the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition, the angle between the characteristic directions depends on the internal friction angle. Therefore, the above-mentioned methods should be generalised in accordance with this property of characteristics.

Purpose. In the case of Plasticity theory for materials whose yield strength does not depend on the average stress, to calculate the stress filed, Mikhlin’s coordinate method is widely used. The purpose of this study is to generalise this method for the equation system consisting of the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion and the pressure equilibrium equations.

Methods. The geometrical properties of the characteristics of the equations’ system consisting of the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition and the equilibrium equations are used to introduce the generalised Mikhlin coordinates.

Results. It’s been pointed out that solving equation system consisting of the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition and equilibrium equation comes to solving equation of telegraphy and to subsequent integration.

Practical Significance. The developed method of system of equations’ solution, consisting of the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition and equilibrium equation enables obtaining high precision solutions at insignificant computer time expenditures.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):89-106
Combination traction and lateral stabilisation system for magnetic levitation transport
Solomin A.V.

The problems of improvement of modern types of transport and creation of new ones are important and topical for the human society development. One of the most promising and environmentally-friendly modes of transport is the high-speed maglev transport, moving at speeds of approximately 500 km/h.

Objective. Justification of linear induction motor, development and research of various constructions of this type of motors.

Methods. Description of linear induction motor with longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux for combined traction and lateral stabilisation system of maglev transport, having increased lateral stabilisation forces. The mathematical modelling of magnetomotive force (MF) in the air gap of traction linear motor of this type has been conducted. To analyse the MF the assumption has been made about even distribution of magnetic induction in the air gap in transverse direction and its sinusoidal longitudinal direction, making it possible to develop new mathematical model of MF distribution in the air gap of linear induction motor with longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux

Results. The developed mathematical model for calculation of MF on traction linear machine will enable increasing accuracy of traction and lateral stabilisation combined system forces for maglev transport. The same relates to mutual location of inductor to the secondary element. All this proves the successful ten-year commercial operation experience of magnetically suspended train carrying passengers from an airport to Shanghai, P.R. China.

The values of traction and lateral stabilisation forces of linear induction motor with longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux is greatly influenced by the character of current distribution in the secondary element. The character itself is influenced by MF distribution in the air gap.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):107-126
Adjustable squirrel-cage linear induction motor for magnetic levitation transport
Solomin V.A., Bichilova A.A., Zamshina L.L., Trybitsina N.A.

The article deals with linear induction motor (LIM) with a squirrel-cage winding of the secondary element (SE), which functions as the armature of the machine. Linear location of squirrel-cage winding of the secondary element of LIM allowed suggesting a number of options for the regulation of the winding resistance of SE.

Objective. Development and research of LIM with adjustable winding resistance of the secondary element for magnetic levitation transport, and the study of the properties of adjustable LIM.

At the modern level of development of the electrical engineering, asynchronous electric drive and magnetic levitation transport, the primary method of changing the frequency rotation of motor and speed of linear motion of high-speed transport vehicles is frequency control. Frequency control allows changing the frequency of rotation of the machine and linear speed of LIM smoothly and in broad diapason. The high cost of static electronic converters of high power limits the large-scale application of frequency control. The increase of the current frequency also leads to lower torque and traction.

Results. According to the authors, the application of the adjustable linear induction motors with variable resistances of short-circuited windings of the secondary elements will allow to expand the range of control of LIM, intended for high-speed magnetic levitation transport with the realisation of large traction, including the start (starting the vehicle) by means of current displacement in the groove of the secondary element of the LIM.

Conclusion. The linear induction motors of this type, as well as the calculation of the magnetic field in the groove of the secondary element, and evaluation of the influence of the current displacement on the starting and controlling features of the machine are considered.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):127-149
Problems of economic assessement of speed in transport and logistical systems in the new technological paradigm
Zhuravleva N.A., Panychev A.Y.

The article suggests a methodological approach to assessment of speed costs of transport systems at the new technological paradigm (The Fourth Industrial Revolution).

Objective: The purpose of the work is to study economic effects of transport and logistical systems (TLS) performance as the infrastructure of high speeds economics.

Methods. Deep analysis of railway infrastructure as a subsystem has been given, which has marked competitive advantages and ensures inclusion of the transport system in the new technological paradigm.

The basic parameters of influence of new technological paradigm on transport systems, namely, dominance of global network production and consumption, supply chain management and added value creation through integration of products and services.

The methodology of the study is based upon quantum description of the economics as a combination of the initial indivisible (quantum) economic structures (model or image), actions and relations between them (service business model), processes (predictive maintenance, state tracking), economic interaction between economic action objects (joint use of resources, instant response) in the space and time.

The authors have introduced the notion of high speed economics as a measure of the society’s taking innovations, which changes all national and global markets, access to them, and interbranch value chains creation. Time management, high speeds are the key competitive advantages of the scheme: “order – fulfillment of the order (service business model)”.

Results. The methods for assessment of speed of TLS, new nomenclature, method of high speed caused effects assessment have been developed. The algorithm of decision making about value of high speeds for transport services consumers in the new technological paradigm has been justified.

On the basis of the analysis of three different distance transformation: length, connecting two objects (expressed in length units), costs and time (speed) for covering distance, − practical application of vector coefficient of the intensity of motion processes as the unit of measurement of any motion has been justified. As the assessment of time and space efficiency of TLS projects’ development, the product of the weight of the goods transported and vector coefficient of motion intensity is used.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):150-178
Justification of indicator system of social and economic efficiency of high-speed urban transport development strategy
Fiodorova M.V.

Introduction. At the present stage of developing methodological approaches to assessment of social and economic efficiency, all the external effects of the project are divided into effects that can be estimated in value terms, and effects that cannot be expressed in monetary units. In turn, the latter are divided into effects that have a quantitative expression and effects, described only on a qualitative level. External effects, which can be estimated in monetary terms, are directly included in the calculation of the social and economic efficiency of the project in the form of additional inflows and outflows of money.

Problem. The conceptual basis for assessing the social and economic efficiency of new high-speed lines is the comprehensive consideration of all external effects from the implementation of the investment project (economic and non-economic) that do not affect the cost parameters of the project participants.

Objective. The aim of the work is to develop a system of indicators for assessing the social and economic efficiency of the strategy of the development of high-speed urban transport.

Methods. Study of existing methods of assessing social and economic efficiency, searching for disadvantages and advantages, exploring the advantages of magnetic levitation technology.

Results. The development of this system of indicators for magnetic levitation transport, which is distinguished by such advantages as the impossibility of derailment, greater route speed, hence less time travel, less noise and vibration than light-rail transport and metro, complete absence of dust, is especially important.

Conclusion. The proposed system of indicators for assessing the social and economic efficiency of the strategy of the development of high-speed urban transport takes into account all the advantages of magnetic levitation technology and makes it a priority when choosing high-speed urban transport.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):179-203
Evaluation of effectiveness of different transport modes for regular mass freight transportation
Smirnov S.A., Smirnova O.Y.

The article deals with different transport modes for regular mass freight transportation, their efficiency evaluation is conducted on the bases of cost, operational and environmental properties.

Introduction. Due to demand in ensuring mass transportations between Southeastern Asia and Europe, there is a topical issue of efficient application of different types of ground transport. There is a request rising, to use cutting edge achievements in technology, to increase speeds of freight transportation for long distance and their safety and environmental friendliness enhancement.

Analysis. Consideration of cost properties of application of different transport modes for mass freight transportation allows revealing that the lowest infrastructure cost is typical for conventional railway transport; the lowest prime cost of transportation is ensured by maglev transport with permanent magnets of the “RosMaglev” technology; the lowest commercially profitable mode of transport for today’s level of science and technology is vacuum transport.

Operationally, the leading project is “RosMaglev”, with the vacuum transport having the lowest operational efficiency.

From environmental and carrying safety points of view, railway transport has gone pretty far in the recent two decades. However, a more sustainable and safe one is the maglev and vacuum modes of transport, which is explained by lack of emissions and other types of pollution, including noise pollution.

In terms of safety, maglev transport is the most competitive mode of transport. Whereas, vacuum transport is the most dangerous one.

Results. For mass freight transportation, the most promising mode of transport is the “RosMaglev” permanent magnets maglev transport, according to the authors. The technology allows significant increase of infrastructure construction costs. The second most promising mode is conventional railway transport. However, if the demand in transportation is low and the energy efficient traction rolling stock is implemented, the high-speed freight railway transport may be highly competitive, especially in countries with developed high-speed railway network. The vacuum transport holds firmly the third place.

Conclusion. The relevance of maglev transport implementation for mass freight transportations is obvious. The maglev technologies now in use in many countries for carrying passengers have proved profitable, safe and convenient. Technical “maturity” of these technologies allows considering all points and factors when constructing maglev freight lines which is very topical due to increasing need in searching transport routes alternative to sea routes.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2017;3(4):204-220

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