Vol 2, No 3 (2016)

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Review
On the establishment of vacuum-levitation transport system
Lapidus B.М.
Abstract

The beginning of the twenty-first century is characterized by strengthening of global priorities in the transport system development. The transition to a resource efficient economy requires the development of innovative technologies in transport. Besides innovations the driver of the development of technologies in railway transport is the growing competitiveness of alternative transport modes (aviation, road transport).

Modern estimates of high-speed parameters of transport system are based on the contact pairs «wheel – rail» and «collecting pantograph – contact wire», which predetermine the speed limit at the level of 350–360 km/h. In the paper, the contactless of energy transmission from infrastructure to rolling stock (magnetic levitation method) is substantiated for creation of efficient high-speed transport means. However, due to a high level of environmental air resistance of rolling stock, the speed is limited to 450–500 km/h.

The transport system project, which based on using artificially created vacuum environment for the movement of transport mean by the principle of a magnetic or aero levitation, bases on "disruptive" technologies for traditional transport modes. The physical basis of the project is a multiple reduction of air resistance to the moving transport mean. It predetermines the multiple energy effect.

An algorithm for preparation of the project concept for a high-speed system using vacuum-levitation train system of the organizational represents a sequence of steps. Its goal is to create fundamental scientific principles for development of a high-speed service of up to and over 1000 km/h.

The development of a fundamentally new transport mode – vacuum-levitation «container system» can have a particular importance for Russia and the world community. It could provide a multiple growth of Russian transport system competitiveness in the global goods exchange between Europe and Asia.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):5-17
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Vacuum magnetic levitation transport: definition of optimal characteristics
Fomin V.M., Zvegintsev V.I., Nalivaichenko D.G., Terent’ev Y.A.
Abstract

Known to a wide circle of specialists of the transport, the concept of "Evacuated Тube Тransport Тechnology" (ET3) [1] is an energy efficient complex magnetic levitation, vacuum and superconducting technology for high-speed ground transportation. The concept is presented as the most effective solution to problem increase the speed and capacity of the transport system c is acceptable the cost of moving passengers and cargo, and low cost of energy.

To determine the optimal ranges of working parameters of the considered transportation system the analysis of the characteristics of the rarefied environment. Based on considerations of balance of power the cost of maintaining the vacuum in the system and to overcome aerodynamic drag throughout the speed range of the vehicle (TC) (500÷6500 km/h) it is shown that the lower bound of the optimal depth of vacuum to the vacuum environment, for the vehicle to relatively low speeds, is 25÷80 PA. For vehicles with speeds close to the maximum I would like to have the pressure of 1 PA or less.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):18-35
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Directions of innovative development of railway transport
Kotova E.A.
Abstract

Introduction. The reform of railway transport radically changes forms and methods of business process management. This reform of JSC "Russian Railways" affects all levels of management and all types of activity. The key method of reform realization is competition development in the sector of railway transportation.

Purpose. The purpose of the article is to identify possibilities of railway transport competitive advantages development as a result of strategic innovations conception applying. In the paper are considered: features of railway transport innovative development; strategic innovations conception as a base of corporation growth and decline of competition level as a result of new business models; directions and volume of financing of innovative process in JSC "Russian Railways"; technological providing of company’s innovative strategy realization.

Methodology. For achievement of the research purpose general scientific methods were applied, such as: system approach, analysis and synthesis, comparison.

Results. In the article main directions of railway transport development according to innovative strategy of JSC "Russian Railways" are considered. The alternative way is realization of strategic innovations conception.

Practical importance. Strategic innovations conception which described in the article may be used in JSC "Russian Railways" when changing of strategic aims and priorities of company development.

Conclusion. In the conditions of modern market enterprises and companies have to search new management forms and methods to provide their competitive advantages. Railway transport dev elopement strategy supposes rolling stock updating, rising of transportation services quality, efficiency and safety, building of new railway lines and transport infrastructure modernization. For JSC "Russian Railways" in this context the main perspectives are development of human resources potential, assing to innovative development. Strategic innovations conception is one of the ways of company’s competitivenessand efficiency increasing, having a perspective of practical application.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):36-46
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Original papers
The efficiency of the control method of “changing the points of crossing or overtaking of freight trains on the railway section”
Groshev G.M., Sugorovsky A.V., Sugorovsky A.V.
Abstract

An important place in the operational management of traffic on the basis of plan formation, train schedule, technical regulations on the use of vehicles and railway infrastructure is operational control operational regulation.

To date, not enough research which would allow to evaluate the effectiveness of dispatch adjustment techniques in areas in the nodes and marshalling yards, given the nature of their work and infrastructure development.

Goal: to prove the effectiveness of the control method of "Changing the points of crossing or overtaking of freight trains in the area".

Method: simulation.

Since the simulation of station processes enables a comparison of idle time between operations on options: using the adjustment of intake and without its application, we investigated the feasibility and practical significance of its application, based on the goal of reducing the magnitude of the idle time between operations.

Results: it was found that the application of the dispatch of the impact of the Change points of crossing or overtaking of freight trains in the area," the total delay in waiting for service is less than an average of 60% than without using it.

Practical significance of the research: the research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of the dispatching regulation and maintenance in the areas.

Research and define the operational and economic efficiency of application of the adjusting dispatching of methods in areas at the nodes and marshalling yards will increase the effectiveness of Supervisory regulation, as a result, each of the independent participants will receive a specific economic benefit.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):47-56
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Choice of regional passenger transportation development model based on world-wide survey
Volkova E.M.
Abstract

Introduction. Regional passenger companies (RPCs) split-off was a result of Russian railways restructuring. Now RPCs have some problems of development, one of them is insufficient funding from regional authorities.

Purpose. The purpose of the research is identification of regional passenger transportation general tendencies and features in various countries on the base of international experience survey, including forms of interaction between RPCs and regional authorities. The research is focusing on the following aspects: 1) competition forms at suburban and regional passenger transportation markets; 2) railway infrastructure and vehicles ownership; 3) state or private ownership on regional passenger companies; 4) regional passenger transportation financing schemes; 5) possibilities of regional passenger transportation performance increasing.

Methodology. For achievement of the research purpose general scientific methods were applied, such as: analysis and synthesis, generalization, analogy, comparison, induction, system approach.

Results. The article has the analysis of competition forms at regional passenger transportation markets. Models of regional passenger transportation development in the world are classified into competition model and regulatory model.

Practical importance. Results of the research can be used by regional authorities in case of transportation policy development, transport reforming and further regional passenger transportation improvement.

Conclusion. The survey of regional passenger companies development should be considered in case of suburban railway passenger transportation reforming in our country. It must be kept in mind RPCs operating conditions in certain regions of Russia, the high level of social importance and historical aspects of suburban transportations development.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):57-69
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Auxiliary power supply systems for high speed maglev vehicles with linear synchronous traction motors
Gulin S.A., Nikitin V.V., Sereda G.E., Sereda E.G.
Abstract

Introduction. In linear traction drives of high speed vehicles moving with velocities about 350 – 450 km/h it is expedient to use synchronous motors with stator winding located on track structure and constant magnetic field sources (permanent magnets, superconducting windings or bulk superconductors) located on the vehicle. Such high speed traction system does not require the moving contact for its power supply and it means a considerable advantage of system. Lack of a moving contact on the vehicle involves also the use of contactless system for auxiliary power supply.

Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the versions of contactless auxiliary energy consumers power supply of high speed maglev vehicles with synchronous traction motors.

Method. Weight, size and energy parameters of maglev vehicles power supply sources for auxiliary consumers are discussed and their areas of use are analyzed.

Results. For contactless power supply of auxiliary energy consumers of maglev vehicles with electrodynamic suspension it is expedient to use linear induction generators and rechargeable batteries. For maglev vehicles with electromagnetic suspension it is expedient to use linear generators, linear transformers and rechargeable batteries.

Practical significance. Results may be used for creation of national commercial high speed maglev transport.

Conclusion. The choice of combination of power supply sources for auxiliary consumers is determined by vehicle magnetic suspension type. For vehicles with electromagnetic suspension it is expedient to use linear transformers, linear induction generators and rechargeable batteries. For vehicles with electrodynamic suspension use superconducting magnetic systems it is expedient to use linear generators and rechargeable batteries.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):70-83
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Determination of transient resistance low-current elektric contacts in dusty conditions the contact surfaces
Lyuminarskaja E.S.
Abstract

Introduction. Now on transport, in automotive, aviation, space, household and other vehicles the tiny mechanically managed switches are widely used. The small weight and small dimensions belong to their benefits. However bad contact connection can lead to failure of devices on which work of all difficult technique depends. In household appliances it will not lead to serious problems, but for transport failure of contact system can lead to catastrophic consequences. The most important indicator of reliability of microswitches is non-failure operation of work. Failures of microswitches arise because of the thermal, electric, mechanical and chemical phenomena in a transitional zone of electric contacts. Now big distribution was gained by low-current contacts. Refusals and failures in such contacts appear generally because of hit in intercontact space of dust and other pollution, formation of the films which are not collapsing in case of short circuit of contacts, sudden change of force of pressing of contacts because of breakdown of an elastic element or an expansion spring.

In article the mathematical model of contact systems in case of failure on the example of modern electronic microswitches of rod type is provided.

Purpose. Creation of mathematical model of contact systems at failure on the example of modern electronic microswitches of rod type, research of operation of microswitches in actual practice operation.

Methodology. Theoretical methods of research with use of personal electronic computer were applied to achievement of an effective objective. The theory of contact interaction of rough surfaces, the theory of electric contacts, methods of linear algebra, etc. have been used. The program complexes Mathcad, ANSYS were used. In case of pilot studies methods of mathematical statistics were applied.

Results. In article the technique of determination of transitional resistance of low-current electric contacts considering possible dust content of contact surfaces, formation of films on surfaces of contacts and change of parameters of a roughness of contact surfaces as a result of plastic deformations is offered. For the studied contacts dependence of probability of failure on concentration of particles of dust is received.

Practical importance. The technique described in article allows to determine the transitional resistance of electric contacts both during the normal work, and at failure.

Conclusion. Development of mathematical models of contacts at failure gives the chance to estimate reliability of connections in actual practice of work, to choose key parameters of switching elements taking into account possible pollution, and also to develop new and to specify the available techniques of detection of failures.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):84-96
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Mathematical model of the hybrid system of magnetic levitation energy production equipment autonomous power 97 supply systems
Vavilov V.E.
Abstract

Introduction. Typically, when developing mathematical models magnetocavitation systems (magnetic bearings, electrostatic bearings, hybrid magnetic bearings (GMP, etc.) is considered just the very bearing as a separate, isolated Electromechanical system. This approach allows us to accurately explore the process magnetocavitation systems, but practically does not allow to evaluate the processes occurring in the system of magnetic bearing–object position. To solve this problem, the author proposes a different approach to the analysis of the processes in magnetocavitation systems in General and GPC in particular considering the magnetic bearing–object position, as a single complex.

Goal. The work aimed the creation of a generalized analytical model of high-speed, AMPE with coercivity permanent magnet (VPM) on an elastic bearing supports, taking into account the mutual influence of processes in AMPA and bearing supports. This task is new and relevant and is essential to modern engineering. To solve this problem this paper developed a generalized mathematical model of the rotor system on a hybrid magnetic suspension. Evaluate the impact of hybrid magnetic bearings on the overall behavior of the rotor system. Performed analysis of processes in Electromechanical energy converters and mechanical processes occurring in the rotary system.

Method and methodology. The research methodology is based on the joint solution of Maxwell equations and equations describing the mechanical processes of a rotor system with five degrees of freedom.

Conclusion. The generalized mathematical model of high-speed, AMPE with VPM on a non-contact bearing supports and conducted her research. Based on research of the developed mathematical model, the authors developed an original control algorithm for the rotor position in a hybrid magnetic bearings, which allows for the design of high-speed, AMPE with VPM to abandon the position sensors of the rotor. In addition, on the basis of the results of calculations, a method was developed for diagnostics of eccentricity of rotor are high-speed, AMPE with VPM, as well as new methods of calculation of high-speed, AMPE with VPM, past experimental verification.

 

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):97-108
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Model of deformation of concrete based on flow plasticity theory for analysis of durability of plain concrete and reinforced concrete bridge constractions
Solovyov L.Y.
Abstract

The purpose of research - perfection of mathematical approaches to an estimation of durability of reinforced concrete structures. The method of research used in work is based on known positions of theories of plasticity with nonassociated flow rule and double isotropic hardening.

Result of work are the basic mathematical dependences of nonlinear model of concrete on the basis of the nonassociated flow rule, and algorithm of their application for an estimation of durability of concrete and reinforced concrete bridge structures.

The nonassociated flow rule is used. For the description of nonlinear compressibility of a material at the three-dimension stress state, additional loading surfaces and the plastic potential, are entered.

The strength surface of durability is presented in the principle stresses space in the form of the closed volume (cap model). The loading surface is under construction as similar of a strength surface.

Complexity of the received mathematical model is compensated by opportunities of calculation of designs at nonproportionate loadings.

The model can be built in the general model of deformation of concrete and reinforced concrete with cracks, including - in view of cyclic and long term loadings.

The practical importance consists in applicability of model for forecasting durability of statically indefinable concrete and ferro-concrete designs having damages in the form of cracks.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):109-118
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Impossibility of superconductivity electric flow
Fedyukin V.K.
Abstract

The solution of an old and urgent scientific and technical problem of superconductivity of electric current is proposed.

Discrepancies to the facts and internal contradictions of a hypothesis of superconductivity of electric current by bodies, in the conditions of cryogenic temperatures are revealed. The new (alternate) comprehension of an essence and the adequate theory of the phenomenon which is inaccurately called by the low-temperature superconductivity of electric current without resistance is formulated. The analysis of an Ohm's law and its restrictions proves impossibility of emergence of superconductivity. It is claimed that when cooling the conductor its resistance increases, but does not decrease.

When overcooling the conductor there is an isolation of electric current by it. The two-current model and the beginnings of the corresponding theory of an electrical conductivity are offered. It is shown that according to the actual two-current theory of distribution (current) of electric energy on the conductor, superconductivity cannot be. The same conclusion is proved by the law of Joule-Lenz and the facts of increase in resistance from action on the conductor of an external magnetic field and decrease of temperature of the conductor.

It is proved that the physical nature of resistance consists in counteraction of an external electromagnetic field (electricity) to the movement on the conductor from the diamagnetic field self-induced in it. It is claimed that at deep overcooling the diamagnetization of the conductor becomes more magnetic field of electricity and the conductor turns into the superdiamagnetic electroisolation center (dielectric).

Replacement of the inaccurate doctrine about superconductivity of electricity on long ago the alternate and most reasonable theory of a cold superdiamagnetization of substances offered by the author of this article allows to solve many problems of practical use of the phenomenon of a superdiamagnetization during creation of new processes and perspective technique of the future.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):119-132
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The method of conditional boundary
Voevodskii K.E., Strepetov V.M.
Abstract

The goal of this work is to propose a new approach to the calculation of electromagnetic field that excited by the eddy current induced in the conductive environment the influence of an external magnetic field source. The quasistationary approximation accepted, that is, the bias currents do not take into account.

Method. The main feature of the method is the introduction of so-called conditional boundary. This name is given for mental surfaces, which can be done in the area, free of conductive environment. Boundary form is arbitrary and dictated by considerations of calculations convenience. The agreement that the same boundary conditions, like on the conductor-vacuum boundary are performed.

We prove that this task change leads to a change in its decisions only outside of the conductor and the only for part of the electric field. Magnetic induction vector throughout the space, as well as electric field tension vector in the conductive environment do not change.

At the same time, a good choice of conditional boundary in some cases allows to simplify the task with calculation point of view.

In addition to the conditional boundaries introduction, some formal basic conversion ratios are proposed, describing quasistationary electromagnetic field. These changes had the same goal to simplify calculations.

The result. The new formulation of task of quasistationary electromagnetic field calculation is received in the form of differential equations system and boundary conditions, including both known ratio and the newly received. The new formulation is equivalent to traditional (with the above proviso). However, it has some advantages in terms of ease of calculation.

The practical significance. In practice of specific calculations the method would be useful, particularly in cases when the form guide is close to some "simple" form.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):133-144
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Digital radio based train control for safety assurance of maglev transportation
Shmatchenko V.V., Plekhanov P.A.
Abstract

Introduction. The Control System of Maglev Vehicles (further – CSMV) has key value for development maglev.

Purpose. In article management by safe movement of maglev vehicles with use of digital radio channel are considered, the international experience is analysed and conclusions for Russian practice are drawn.

Methodology. The following methods were used: system approach, analysis and synthesis, generalization.

Results. CSMV should consider physical possibilities of magnetic levitation, factors and the restrictions influencing these possibilities, including – the factors connected with safety. CSMV should possess complex of functions allowing effectively, full and safely to realise possibility of magnetic levitation in conditions of specified factors and restrictions.

Practical importance. The basic practical results, which can be received by working out CSMV, are:

  • creation CSMV with high level of control automation and consequently effective and safe;
  • working out within CSMV typical design decisions, applicable for adaptation to monitoring and control of problems various systems and maglev vehicles;
  • creation of preconditions of design and perfection of all complex of regulatory framework, conformity which provides safety of maglev infrastructure and vehicles;
  • reception of interaction experience of the Customer, the research and design organisations, the industry enterprises, the assembly and maintaining organisations at stages of life cycle of CSMV, as key subsystem of maglev.

Conclusion. The main appointment of CSMV – creation and constant provide of conditions for safe and effective functioning and development of this new type of transport.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2016;2(3):145-154
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